But this did not prevent the pool of ringside newspaper reporters from declaring a consensus result among themselves and printing a newspaper decision in their publications. These styles may be divided into several special subgroups, such as counter puncher, etc. A world champion boxer acting like that, really let yourself down — Brian Dickenson BrianDicko September 18,
The most trusted voice in sports delivered straight to your inbox. Sign up now to receive Sports Illustrated's best content, special offers and much more. You may unsubscribe from email communication at anytime. Thank you for signing up! Please check your inbox to confirm your email address and start receiving newsletters. By Emily Caron September 11, Sign Up for our Newsletter Don't get stuck on the sidelines!
Sign up to get exclusives, daily highlights, analysis and more—delivered right to your inbox! Email Address Enter valid email address Password. Email Address Enter valid email address. Zip Code Please enter zip code or country for newsletter signup.
Password Must be at least 6 characters and contain a number and an uppercase and lowercase letter. Confirm Password Passwords must match.
A referee monitors the fight to ensure that competitors use only legal blows. A belt worn over the torso represents the lower limit of punches — any boxer repeatedly landing low blows below the belt is disqualified. Referees also ensure that the boxers don't use holding tactics to prevent the opponent from swinging.
If this occurs, the referee separates the opponents and orders them to continue boxing. Repeated holding can result in a boxer being penalized or ultimately disqualified.
Referees will stop the bout if a boxer is seriously injured, if one boxer is significantly dominating the other or if the score is severely imbalanced.
Professional bouts are usually much longer than amateur bouts, typically ranging from ten to twelve rounds, though four-round fights are common for less experienced fighters or club fighters. There are also some two-  and three-round professional bouts,  especially in Australia. Through the early 20th century, it was common for fights to have unlimited rounds, ending only when one fighter quit, benefiting high-energy fighters like Jack Dempsey.
Fifteen rounds remained the internationally recognized limit for championship fights for most of the 20th century until the early s , when the death of boxer Kim Duk-koo eventually prompted the World Boxing Council and other organizations sanctioning professional boxing to reduce the limit to twelve rounds. Headgear is not permitted in professional bouts, and boxers are generally allowed to take much more damage before a fight is halted.
At any time, the referee may stop the contest if he believes that one participant cannot defend himself due to injury. In that case, the other participant is awarded a technical knockout win. A technical knockout would also be awarded if a fighter lands a punch that opens a cut on the opponent, and the opponent is later deemed not fit to continue by a doctor because of the cut. For this reason, fighters often employ cutmen , whose job is to treat cuts between rounds so that the boxer is able to continue despite the cut.
If a boxer simply quits fighting, or if his corner stops the fight, then the winning boxer is also awarded a technical knockout victory.
In contrast with amateur boxing, professional male boxers have to be bare-chested. No two fighters' styles are alike, as each is determined by that individual's physical and mental attributes.
Three main styles exist in boxing: These styles may be divided into several special subgroups, such as counter puncher, etc. The main philosophy of the styles is, that each style has an advantage over one, but disadvantage over the other one.
It follows the rock-paper-scissors scenario - boxer beats brawler, brawler beats swarmer, and swarmer beats boxer. A classic "boxer" or stylist also known as an "out-fighter" seeks to maintain distance between himself and his opponent, fighting with faster, longer range punches, most notably the jab, and gradually wearing his opponent down.
Due to this reliance on weaker punches, out-fighters tend to win by point decisions rather than by knockout, though some out-fighters have notable knockout records.
They are often regarded as the best boxing strategists due to their ability to control the pace of the fight and lead their opponent, methodically wearing him down and exhibiting more skill and finesse than a brawler. This style was also used by fictional boxer Apollo Creed. A boxer-puncher is a well-rounded boxer who is able to fight at close range with a combination of technique and power, often with the ability to knock opponents out with a combination and in some instances a single shot.
Their movement and tactics are similar to that of an out-fighter although they are generally not as mobile as an out-fighter ,  but instead of winning by decision, they tend to wear their opponents down using combinations and then move in to score the knockout. A boxer must be well rounded to be effective using this style. Counter punchers are slippery, defensive style fighters who often rely on their opponent's mistakes in order to gain the advantage, whether it be on the score cards or more preferably a knockout.
They use their well-rounded defense to avoid or block shots and then immediately catch the opponent off guard with a well placed and timed punch. A fight with a skilled counter-puncher can turn into a war of attrition, where each shot landed is a battle in itself.
Thus, fighting against counter punchers requires constant feinting and the ability to avoid telegraphing one's attacks. To be truly successful using this style they must have good reflexes, a high level of prediction and awareness, pinpoint accuracy and speed, both in striking and in footwork.
This style of boxing is also used by fictional boxer Little Mac. Counter punchers usually wear their opponents down by causing them to miss their punches. The more the opponent misses, the faster they tire, and the psychological effects of being unable to land a hit will start to sink in.
The counter puncher often tries to outplay their opponent entirely, not just in a physical sense, but also in a mental and emotional sense. This style can be incredibly difficult, especially against seasoned fighters, but winning a fight without getting hit is often worth the pay-off. They usually try to stay away from the center of the ring, in order to outmaneuver and chip away at their opponents.
A large advantage in counter-hitting is the forward momentum of the attacker, which drives them further into your return strike. As such, knockouts are more common than one would expect from a defensive style.
A brawler is a fighter who generally lacks finesse and footwork in the ring, but makes up for it through sheer punching power. Many brawlers tend to lack mobility, preferring a less mobile, more stable platform and have difficulty pursuing fighters who are fast on their feet.
They may also have a tendency to ignore combination punching in favor of continuous beat-downs with one hand and by throwing slower, more powerful single punches such as hooks and uppercuts. Their slowness and predictable punching pattern single punches with obvious leads often leaves them open to counter punches, so successful brawlers must be able to absorb substantial amounts of punishment.
A brawler's most important assets are power and chin the ability to absorb punishment while remaining able to continue boxing. Brawlers tend to be more predictable and easy to hit but usually fare well enough against other fighting styles because they train to take punches very well.
They often have a higher chance than other fighting styles to score a knockout against their opponents because they focus on landing big, powerful hits, instead of smaller, faster attacks. Oftentimes they place focus on training on their upper body instead of their entire body, to increase power and endurance.
They also aim to intimidate their opponents because of their power, stature and ability to take a punch. A successful in-fighter often needs a good " chin " because swarming usually involves being hit with many jabs before they can maneuver inside where they are more effective. In-fighters operate best at close range because they are generally shorter and have less reach than their opponents and thus are more effective at a short distance where the longer arms of their opponents make punching awkward.
However, several fighters tall for their division have been relatively adept at in-fighting as well as out-fighting. The essence of a swarmer is non-stop aggression. Many short in-fighters use their stature to their advantage, employing a bob-and-weave defense by bending at the waist to slip underneath or to the sides of incoming punches.
Unlike blocking, causing an opponent to miss a punch disrupts his balance, this permits forward movement past the opponent's extended arm and keeps the hands free to counter.
A distinct advantage that in-fighters have is when throwing uppercuts, they can channel their entire bodyweight behind the punch; Mike Tyson was famous for throwing devastating uppercuts. Marvin Hagler was known for his hard " chin ", punching power, body attack and the stalking of his opponents.
Some in-fighters, like Mike Tyson, have been known for being notoriously hard to hit. The key to a swarmer is aggression, endurance, chin, and bobbing-and-weaving. This style was also used by the Street Fighter character Balrog. All fighters have primary skills with which they feel most comfortable, but truly elite fighters are often able to incorporate auxiliary styles when presented with a particular challenge.
For example, an out-fighter will sometimes plant his feet and counter punch, or a slugger may have the stamina to pressure fight with his power punches. There is a generally accepted rule of thumb about the success each of these boxing styles has against the others. In general, an in-fighter has an advantage over an out-fighter, an out-fighter has an advantage over a brawler, and a brawler has an advantage over an in-fighter; these form a cycle with each style being stronger relative to one, and weaker relative to another, with none dominating, as in rock-paper-scissors.
Naturally, many other factors, such as the skill level and training of the combatants, determine the outcome of a fight, but the widely held belief in this relationship among the styles is embodied in the cliché amongst boxing fans and writers that "styles make fights.
Brawlers tend to overcome swarmers or in-fighters because, in trying to get close to the slugger, the in-fighter will invariably have to walk straight into the guns of the much harder-hitting brawler, so, unless the former has a very good chin and the latter's stamina is poor, the brawler's superior power will carry the day.
A famous example of this type of match-up advantage would be George Foreman 's knockout victory over Joe Frazier in their original bout "The Sunshine Showdown". Although in-fighters struggle against heavy sluggers, they typically enjoy more success against out-fighters or boxers.
Out-fighters prefer a slower fight, with some distance between themselves and the opponent. The in-fighter tries to close that gap and unleash furious flurries. On the inside, the out-fighter loses a lot of his combat effectiveness, because he cannot throw the hard punches.
The in-fighter is generally successful in this case, due to his intensity in advancing on his opponent and his good agility, which makes him difficult to evade.
For example, the swarming Joe Frazier, though easily dominated by the slugger George Foreman, was able to create many more problems for the boxer Muhammad Ali in their three fights. The boxer or out-fighter tends to be most successful against a brawler, whose slow speed both hand and foot and poor technique makes him an easy target to hit for the faster out-fighter.
The out-fighter's main concern is to stay alert, as the brawler only needs to land one good punch to finish the fight. If the out-fighter can avoid those power punches, he can often wear the brawler down with fast jabs, tiring him out.
If he is successful enough, he may even apply extra pressure in the later rounds in an attempt to achieve a knockout. Most classic boxers, such as Muhammad Ali, enjoyed their best successes against sluggers. Taylor's hand and foot speed and boxing abilities gave him the early advantage, allowing him to begin building a large lead on points.
While there was little doubt that Taylor had solidly won the first three quarters of the fight, the question at hand was whether he would survive the final quarter. Going into the final round, Taylor held a secure lead on the scorecards of two of the three judges.
By using the ring ropes to pull himself up, Taylor managed to return to his feet and was given the mandatory 8-count. Referee Richard Steele asked Taylor twice if he was able to continue fighting, but Taylor failed to answer. Since boxing involves forceful, repetitive punching, precautions must be taken to prevent damage to bones in the hand. Most trainers do not allow boxers to train and spar without wrist wraps and boxing gloves. Hand wraps are used to secure the bones in the hand, and the gloves are used to protect the hands from blunt injury, allowing boxers to throw punches with more force than if they did not use them.
Gloves have been required in competition since the late nineteenth century, though modern boxing gloves are much heavier than those worn by early twentieth-century fighters. Prior to a bout, both boxers agree upon the weight of gloves to be used in the bout, with the understanding that lighter gloves allow heavy punchers to inflict more damage.
The brand of gloves can also affect the impact of punches, so this too is usually stipulated before a bout. Both sides are allowed to inspect the wraps and gloves of the opponent to help ensure both are within agreed upon specifications and no tampering has taken place.
A mouthguard is important to protect the teeth and gums from injury, and to cushion the jaw, resulting in a decreased chance of knockout. Both fighters must wear soft soled shoes to reduce the damage from accidental or intentional stepping on feet. While older boxing boots more commonly resembled those of a professional wrestler, modern boxing shoes and boots tend to be quite similar to their amateur wrestling counterparts.
Boxers practice their skills on several types of punching bags. A small, tear-drop-shaped "speed bag" is used to hone reflexes and repetitive punching skills, while a large cylindrical "heavy bag" filled with sand, a synthetic substitute, or water is used to practice power punching and body blows.
The double-end bag is usually connected by elastic on the top and bottom and moves randomly upon getting struck and helps the fighter work on accuracy and reflexes. In addition to these distinctive pieces of equipment, boxers also use sport-nonspecific training equipment to build strength, speed, agility, and stamina. Common training equipment includes free weights, rowing machines, jump rope , and medicine balls. This is a great exercise for stamina as the boxer isn't allowed to go at his own pace but that of the trainer, typically forcing the fighter to endure a higher output and volume than usual.
In addition, they also allow trainers to make boxers utilize footwork and distances more accurately. Boxing matches typically take place in a boxing ring , a raised platform surrounded by ropes attached to posts rising in each corner. The term "ring" has come to be used as a metaphor for many aspects of prize fighting in general. The modern boxing stance differs substantially from the typical boxing stances of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The modern stance has a more upright vertical-armed guard, as opposed to the more horizontal, knuckles-facing-forward guard adopted by early 20th century hook users such as Jack Johnson.
In a fully upright stance, the boxer stands with the legs shoulder-width apart and the rear foot a half-step in front of the lead man. Right-handed or orthodox boxers lead with the left foot and fist for most penetration power. Both feet are parallel, and the right heel is off the ground. The lead left fist is held vertically about six inches in front of the face at eye level.
The rear right fist is held beside the chin and the elbow tucked against the ribcage to protect the body. The chin is tucked into the chest to avoid punches to the jaw which commonly cause knock-outs and is often kept slightly off-center.
Wrists are slightly bent to avoid damage when punching and the elbows are kept tucked in to protect the ribcage. Some boxers fight from a crouch, leaning forward and keeping their feet closer together. The stance described is considered the "textbook" stance and fighters are encouraged to change it around once it's been mastered as a base. Case in point, many fast fighters have their hands down and have almost exaggerated footwork, while brawlers or bully fighters tend to slowly stalk their opponents.
Left-handed or southpaw fighters use a mirror image of the orthodox stance, which can create problems for orthodox fighters unaccustomed to receiving jabs, hooks, or crosses from the opposite side. The southpaw stance , conversely, is vulnerable to a straight right hand. North American fighters tend to favor a more balanced stance, facing the opponent almost squarely, while many European fighters stand with their torso turned more to the side.
The positioning of the hands may also vary, as some fighters prefer to have both hands raised in front of the face, risking exposure to body shots. Modern boxers can sometimes be seen tapping their cheeks or foreheads with their fists in order to remind themselves to keep their hands up which becomes difficult during long bouts. Boxers are taught to push off with their feet in order to move effectively.
Forward motion involves lifting the lead leg and pushing with the rear leg. Rearward motion involves lifting the rear leg and pushing with the lead leg. During lateral motion the leg in the direction of the movement moves first while the opposite leg provides the force needed to move the body. There are four basic punches in boxing: Any punch other than a jab is considered a power punch.
If a boxer is right-handed orthodox , his left hand is the lead hand and his right hand is the rear hand. For a left-handed boxer or southpaw, the hand positions are reversed.
For clarity, the following discussion will assume a right-handed boxer. Cross - in counter-punch with a looping. These different punch types can be thrown in rapid succession to form combinations or "combos. A large, swinging circular punch starting from a cocked-back position with the arm at a longer extension than the hook and all of the fighter's weight behind it is sometimes referred to as a "roundhouse," "haymaker," "overhand," or sucker-punch. Relying on body weight and centripetal force within a wide arc, the roundhouse can be a powerful blow, but it is often a wild and uncontrolled punch that leaves the fighter delivering it off balance and with an open guard.
Wide, looping punches have the further disadvantage of taking more time to deliver, giving the opponent ample warning to react and counter. For this reason, the haymaker or roundhouse is not a conventional punch, and is regarded by trainers as a mark of poor technique or desperation. Sometimes it has been used, because of its immense potential power, to finish off an already staggering opponent who seems unable or unlikely to take advantage of the poor position it leaves the puncher in.
Another unconventional punch is the rarely used bolo punch , in which the opponent swings an arm out several times in a wide arc, usually as a distraction, before delivering with either that or the other arm. An illegal punch to the back of the head or neck is known as a rabbit punch. Both the hook and uppercut may be thrown with both hands, resulting in differing footwork and positioning from that described above if thrown by the other hand.
Generally the analogous opposite is true of the footwork and torso movement. There are several basic maneuvers a boxer can use in order to evade or block punches, depicted and discussed below. Blocking with the arms. Cover-Up with the gloves. In boxing, each fighter is given a corner of the ring where he rests in between rounds for 1 minute and where his trainers stand. Typically, three men stand in the corner besides the boxer himself; these are the trainer, the assistant trainer and the cutman.
The trainer and assistant typically give advice to the boxer on what he is doing wrong as well as encouraging him if he is losing. The cutman is a cutaneous doctor responsible for keeping the boxer's face and eyes free of cuts and blood.
This is of particular importance because many fights are stopped because of cuts that threaten the boxer's eyes. In addition, the corner is responsible for stopping the fight if they feel their fighter is in grave danger of permanent injury.
The corner will occasionally throw in a white towel to signify a boxer's surrender the idiomatic phrase "to throw in the towel", meaning to give up, derives from this practice. In that fight, Corrales' corner surrendered despite Corrales' steadfast refusal. Knocking a person unconscious or even causing a concussion may cause permanent brain damage. George Lundberg, called boxing an "obscenity" that "should not be sanctioned by any civilized society.
Supporters of the ban state that boxing is the only sport where hurting the other athlete is the goal. They observe that many skilled professional boxers have had rewarding careers without inflicting injury on opponents by accumulating scoring blows and avoiding punches winning rounds scored by the point must system , and they note that there are many other sports where concussions are much more prevalent.
In , one study of amateur boxers showed that protective headgear did not prevent brain damage,  and another found that amateur boxers faced a high risk of brain damage. More comprehensive studies of neurologiocal function on larger samples performed by Johns Hopkins University and accident rates analyzed by National Safety Council show amateur boxing is a comparatively safe sport.
In , the American Association of Professional Ringside Physicians was established to create medical protocols through research and education to prevent injuries in boxing. It was banned in Sweden until when the ban was lifted but strict restrictions, including four three-minute rounds for fights, were imposed. Norway legalized professional boxing in December Boxing's International Hall of Fame was inspired by a tribute an American town held for two local heroes in The people of Canastota raised money for the tribute which inspired the idea of creating an official, annual hall of fame for notable boxers.
The Hall of Fame's induction ceremony is held every June as part of a four-day event. The fans who come to Canastota for the Induction Weekend are treated to a number of events, including scheduled autograph sessions, boxing exhibitions, a parade featuring past and present inductees, and the induction ceremony itself.
The collection includes the fights of all the great champions including: It is this exclusive fight film library that will separate the Boxing Hall of Fame Las Vegas from the other halls of fame which do not have rights to any video of their sports.
There are various organization and websites, that rank boxers in both weight class and pound-for-pound manner. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 10 October For other uses, see Boxing disambiguation , Boxer disambiguation , Boxers disambiguation , and Prizefighter disambiguation.
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Two Royal Navy men boxing for charity. The modern sport was codified in England. Marquess of Queensberry Rules.
Boxing styles and technique. List of boxing organisations.
Boxer de sport en coton à pochette avant en couleur pure est à la mode et bon marché, venez à NewChic pour voir plus de biens en ligne. Two-pack of sport-performance midway boxer briefs each featuring logoed Sports Underwear Breathable Dri Fit Underwear Mens Support Underwear Workout Underwear Athletic Boxer Briefs. by Dream Catcher. $ - $ $ 18 $ 19 99 Prime. FREE Shipping on eligible orders. Jan 09, · Muhammad Ali played a lot of mental games against his opponents. He started doing that way back when he fought Sonny Liston for the Heavyweight Title. .